Volcano motionless landscape not at all inert
The volcanic system of Roccamonfina – whose magmatic source is located between the “Roman Comagmatic Province” and the “Campana Province” – occupies the northern slopewestern Campania for an area of about 450 Km2 for a base diameter of about 15 Km and runs along the southern border of Lazio.
The volcano of Roccamonfina (Monte S. Croce- 1005 meters) is now extinct, but during its millennial eruptive activity, has covered the surrounding landscape with pyroclastic deposits and lava flows, giving the entire area an incomparable atavistic suggestion.
This volcano is by size the fourth Italian volcano, while for altitude is the fifth after Etna, Vulture, Vesuvius and Mount Amiata and it is one of the most interesting volcanic systems in the world.
Its eruptive activity is dated between 630,000 and 50,000 years ago.
It is considered a volcano of considerable size, greater for example than those of Vesuvius, whose morphological structure recalls. Like Vesuvius, Roccamonfina can be classified as a polygenic volcano, with summit caldera derived from the collapse of the primordial volcano, within which a new volcano has been built, which in Roccamonfina is represented by the effusion of domes Lattani.
The geological history of the volcano of Roccamonfina has been divided into three main eruptive periods, separated by periods of quiescence and characterized by important variations of the eruptive modalities.
The first eruptive epoch is between 630,000 to 374,000 years ago. During this period about 100-120 km3 of lava and pyroclastic products were erupted.
Roccamonfina was a volcano layer built by alternating lava and pyroclastic deposits. The lavas, which in the early stages were very abundant, have tephritic-leucitic composition. From a petrographic point of view this period ranging from 549,000 to 374,000 years ago, and is characterized by the emission of high-potassium magmas. It has been suggested that the building of Roccamonfina reached a height of 1600-1800 meters.
The end of the first eruptive epoch is set by geologists around 400,000 years ago.